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明清小说 Fiction of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

作者: 录入:tmx 来源:中国华文教育网 2017-10-23 16:47:14 

  明清时期,中国古典小说的创作取得了辉煌的成就,杰出的代表作品有四大文学名著《三国演义》、《水浒传》、《西游记》、《红楼梦》及鬼狐小说《聊斋志异》等。如今,这些享有世界声誉的作品,已被改编成影视剧,受到中外观众的喜爱。

  《三国演义》是中国第一部完整的长篇历史小说。作者罗贯中是元末明初人。他根据历史记载和民间流传的三国故事创作了这部小说。《三国演义》主要描写了魏、蜀、吴三国之间在军事上、政治上的种种斗争,反映了当时动乱的社会现实。书中塑造了许多不同性格的人物,如神机妙算的诸葛亮、奸诈多疑的曹操、忠勇的关羽、鲁莽的张飞等,给人留下了深刻的印象。

  《水浒传》是一部描写农民起义的长篇小说。作者施耐庵是元末明初人。他根据民间流传的北宋末年宋江起义的故事,写成了这部小说。全书主要描写了宋江领导的梁山a农民起义从兴起到失败的过程,揭露了“官逼民反”的社会现实。书中成功地塑造了108位梁山好汉的英雄形象,歌颂了他们的斗争精神。其中《武松打虎》、《鲁智深倒拔垂杨柳》等故事,至今令人百读不厌。

  《西游记》是一部著名的神话长篇小说。明代人吴承恩根据唐僧b取经的故事和传说,创作了这部小说。小说描写了孙悟空、猪八戒、沙和尚保护唐僧去西天取经的故事。他们一路上降妖伏魔,经历了81难,终于取回了真经。书中最光辉的形象是孙悟空,他机智勇敢,本领高强,敢于反抗天神和妖魔,体现了人民反抗压迫的愿望,所以深受人们喜爱。这部小说充满了奇特的幻想,表现了丰富的艺术想象力,在中国影响极大。

  《红楼梦》是中国古典小说中最优秀的作品。作者是清代文学家曹雪芹。这部小说通过贵族青年贾宝玉和林黛玉的恋爱悲剧,叙述了一个封建贵族家庭由盛到衰的历史。书中塑造了400多个栩栩如生的人物,如王熙凤、薛宝钗、晴雯等。整部小说情节生动,语言优美,是中国古典小说创作的最高峰,在世界文学史上也占有重要的地位。

  《聊斋志异》是一部中外闻名的文言c短篇小说集。作者是清代人蒲松龄。《聊斋志异》中的故事生动奇特,大都与鬼怪、花仙、狐仙有关,如:《梦狼》通过梦境告诉人们,当官的都是吃人的狼和老虎;《香玉》描写了书生和牡丹花妖恋爱的故事……作者通过这些故事,歌颂了美好的品德,表现了青年男女追求恋爱自由的愿望,揭露了封建制度的黑暗、不公,控诉了贪官恶吏的罪恶,寄托了自己的理想和希望。这部小说深受人们喜爱,是中国文言短篇小说的高峰之作。

  The Ming (1368-1644 AD) and Qing (1644-1911 AD) dynasties witnessed great achievements in the creation of fiction. The representative works are Romance of Three Kingdoms, Outlaws of the Marsh, Journey to the West, A Dream of Red Mansions and Strange Tales of Liaozhai. Those works enjoy a high reputation throughout the world, where audiences have been exposed to film and TV versions as well as the books.

  Romance of Three Kingdoms is the earliest complete historical novel in China. The author Luo Guanzhong lived in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties. This novel was written on the basis of historical records and the stories about the three kingdoms that circulated in public. It focuses on military and political rivalry between the kingdoms of Wei, Shu and Wu, which reflect the upheavals of the time. In the novel, the author successfully created a number of impressive characters with different dispositions, such as Zhuge Liang, a superb strategist, cunning and suspicious Cao Cao, loyal and brave Guan Yu, rash and reckless Zhang Fei, etc.

  Outlaws of the Marsh is a novel about a peasant rebellion. The author Shi Naian lived in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties. Based on popular stories about a peasant rebellion led by a man called Song Jiang in the late Song Dynasty, Shi created this novel. It describes the rise and fall of the peasant rebellion in the area of the Liangshan Mountainsa in Shandong Province, reflecting the social reality of 烒ebellion of civilians driven by persecution of officials? The novel successfully depicts 108 rebels and lauds their dauntless acts. Episodes like "Wu Song Strikes A Tiger" and "Lu Zhishen Pulls Out a Willow Tree"remain vivid to this day.

  Journey to the West is a renowned mythical novel. The author Wu Cheng'en of the Ming Dynasty wrote this book on the basis of stories about Xuan Zang, a monk of the Tang Dynasty who traveled to India in the face of many difficulties to learn the Buddhist scriptures. The author created a cast of capable figures like Monkey, Pig and Sandy who escort and protect the Buddhist priest on the way to the West. They subdue all kinds of demons during the journey and survive 81 calamities to eventually bring back the scriptures. Monkey is clever and brave, and possesses great power. He shows no fear in the face of heavenly gods or sinister monsters. The spirit in fighting against oppression as depicted in the book is what readers admire most. The novel is full of fantasies that indicate the author's powerful imagination. It has always had a tremendous impact on the Chinese people.

  A Dream of Red Mansions is probably the best Chinese classic novel. The author was Cao Xueqin of the Qing Dynasty. Through a tragedy of romance between Jia Baoyu of a noble clan and Lin Daiyu, the novel gives an account of the history of a feudal clan from its heyday to its final collapse. There are more than 400 vividly depicted characters in the novel, like Wang Xifeng, Xue Baochai and Qing Wen. With its fascinating stories and superb language, A Dream of Red Mansions has reached the zenith of the Chinese classic novels, and has an important position in the history of world literature.

  Strange Tales of Liaozhai is a collection of short stories written in classical Chinese in use before 1919. The author Pu Songling lived in the Qing Dynasty. Stories in this book are vivid and strange, mostly concerned with the spirit world, but have strong allegorical overtones, such as A Dream of Wolves, which depicts all officials as wolves and tigers that eat human beings; Xiang Yu, meanwhile, is an account of a love story between a scholar and the Peony Immortal. Through stories like those, the author praises fine moral ethics, expressed the wishes of young men and women to have a marriage of their own free will, exposed the dark and unfair feudal society, denounced corrupt officials and expressed his own ideals and hopes. This collection is widely read and it is the best story collection in classical Chinese.

【来源:中国华文教育网】

 

 

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