当前位置:首页 > 对外汉语 > 文化中国 > 旅游 > 正文

The Ancient Town of Lijiang 云南丽江古城

作者: 录入:tmx 来源:对外汉语学习网 2017-08-24 16:57:02 

 丽江古城位于中国西南部云南省的丽江纳西族自治县,始建于宋末元初(公元13世纪后期)。古城地处云贵高原,海拔2400余米,全城面积达3.8平方公里,自古就是远近闻名的集市和重镇。古城现有居民6200多户,25000余人。其中,纳西族占总人口绝大多数,有30%的居民仍在从事以铜银器制作、皮毛皮革、纺织、酿造业为主的传统手工业和商业活动。

 

 First built at the turn (later 13th century) between the Song and Yuan dynasties, the Ancient Town of Lijiang is located in Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County in Southwest China’s Yunnan Province. Situated on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, the Ancient Town is over 2,400m above sea level and covers a land area of 3.8Km2. Since ancient times, it has been a well-known market place and a town of strategic importance. Currently, there are over 6,200 households and 25,000 residents in the Ancient Town. Naxi people make up the most part of the population. 30% of local residents are still mainly engaged in traditional handicraft and business activities such as copper and silver ware making, fur leather making, textile production and brewing.

 

 丽江古城内的街道依山傍水修建,以红色角砾岩铺就,雨季不会泥泞、旱季也不会飞灰,石上花纹图案自然雅致,与整个城市环境相得益彰。位于古城中心的四方街是丽江古街的代表。

 

 Streets in the Ancient Town of Lijiang are built along the mountains and rivers and paved with red breccia stones to prevent muddy surfaces in the rainy season and dust in the dry season. Patterns on the stones are natural and elegant and perfectly match with the whole urban environment. The Square Street at the Center of the Ancient Town is a typical example of ancient streets in Lijiang.

 

 在丽江古城区内的玉河水系上,修建有桥梁354座,其密度为平均每平方公里93座。桥梁的形制多种多样,较著名的有锁翠桥、大石桥、万千桥、南门桥、马鞍桥、仁寿桥,均建于明清时期(公元14~19世纪)。其中以位于四方街以东100米的大石桥最具特色。

 

 Three hundred fifty-four bridges of various styles have been built along the Yuhe River Drainage System in the Ancient Town of Lijiang, with a density of 93 bridges/Km2. The famous ones include Suocui, dashi, Wanqian, Nanmen, Ma’an and Renshou bridges, all built in the Ming and Qing dynasties (14th~19th centuries). Among them, Dashi Bridge located 100M east of the Square Street is most characteristic.

 

 古城内的木府原为丽江世袭土司木氏的衙署,始建于元代(公元1271~1368年),1998年重建后改为古城博物院。木府占地46亩,府内有大小房间共162间。其内还悬挂有历代皇帝钦赐的匾额十一块,反映了木氏家族的盛衰历史。

 

 The Mu’s Residence in the Ancient Town was originally the governing office of the hereditary chieftain Mu of Lijiang, which was first built in the Yuan Dynasty (1271~1368AD). It was rebuilt into the Ancient Town Museum in 1998. The Mu’s Residence covers a land area of 46 Mu (one Chinese Mu is 1/16 of a hectare). There are a total of 162 rooms in the Residence. 11 plaques given by emperors of the various dynasties are also hung inside, showing the rise and fall of the Mu family.

 

 位于城内福国寺的五凤楼始建于明代万历二十九年(公元1601年),楼高20米。因其建筑形制酷似五只飞来的彩凤,故名“五凤楼”,楼内的天花板上还绘有多种精美的图案。五凤楼融合了汉、藏、纳西等民族的建筑艺术风格,是中国古代建筑中的稀世珍宝和典型范例。

 

 Twenty meters high, Wufeng (“Five Phoenixes” in Chinese) Building inside the Fuguo Temple in the Ancient Town of Lijiang was first built in the 29th year (1601AD) of the Wanli Period of the Ming Dynasty. The Building derived its name because its architectural form greatly resembles 5 flying phoenixes. Various beautiful patterns were painted on the ceiling. Wufeng Building integrates the architectural artistic styles of Han, Tibetan and Naxi nationalities and is a rare treasure and a typical model of ancient Chinese architecture.

 

 白沙民居建筑群位于丽江古城以北8公里处,这里曾是宋元时期(公元10~14世纪)丽江地区政治、经济、文化的中心。白沙民居建筑群分布在一条南北走向的主轴上,中心为一梯形广场,一股泉水由北面引入广场,四条巷道从广场通向四方,极具特色。白沙民居建筑群形成和发展为后来丽江古城的布局奠定了基础。

 

 The Baisha Residential House Complex is located 8Km north of the Ancient Town of Lijiang. It was once the political, economic and cultural center of the Lijiang region in the Song and Yuan dynasties (10th~14th centuries). The Complex is distributed along a main south-north axis, with a trapezoidal square at the center. A spring is led into the square from the north side, and four lanes spread out from the square, giving rise to a unique scene. The formation and development of the Baisha Residential House Complex laid the foundation for the subsequent layout of the Ancient Town of Lijiang.

 

 束河民居建筑群位于丽江古城西北4公里处,是丽江古城周边的一个小集市,建筑群内民居房舍错落有致,布局形制与丽江古城四方街相似。青龙河自建筑群的中央穿过,建于明代(公元1368~1644年)的青龙桥横跨其上,青龙桥是丽江境内最大的石拱桥。

 

 The Shuhe Residential House Complex is a small fair located 4Km northwest of the Old Town of Lijiang. Residential houses of the architectural complex are well tiered, forming a layout similar to the Square Street in the Old Town of Lijiang. Qinglong River flows through the center of the architectural complex. Built in the Ming Dynasty (1368~1644AD), Qinglong Bridge crosses the river and is the largest stone arc bridge in Lijiang.

 

 丽江古城历史悠久,古朴自然。城市布局错落有致,既具有山城风貌,又富于水乡韵味。丽江民居既融和了汉、白、彝、藏各民族精华,又有纳西族的独特风采,是研究中国建筑史、文化史不可多得的重要遗产。丽江古城包容着丰富的民族传统文化,集中体现了纳西民族的兴旺与发展,是研究人类文化发展的重要史料。

 

 With a long history, the Ancient Town of Lijiang features primitive simplicity, naturalness and a wonderful urban mosaic of mountainous city scenery and water county style. Folk dwellings in Lijiang integrate the finest traditions of Han, Bai, Yi and Tibetan nationalities and bear the unique style of Naxi people, forming a rare legacy for the study of Chinese architectural and cultural histories. The Ancient Town of Lijiang contains rich traditional national culture, embodies the prosperity and development of Naxi ethic people and offers an important historical source of materials for the study of cultural development of mankind.

 

丽江古城.jpg

丽江古城.jpg

我要评论

共有条评论
用户名: 密码:
验证码: 匿名发表

文明上网理性发言,请遵守新闻评论服务协议