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中秋节 Mid-Autumn Festival

编辑: 录入:cl 来源:外语爱好者学习网 2017-01-16 15:53:16 

 中秋节 Zhōngqiū jié Mid-Autumn Festival

每年农历八月十五日,是传统的中秋佳节。这时是一年秋季的中期,所以被称为中秋。在中国的农历里,一年分为四季,每季又分为孟、仲、季三个部分,因而中秋也称仲秋。八月十五的月亮比其他几个月的满月更圆,更明亮,所以又叫做“月夕”,“八月节”。此夜,人们仰望天空如玉如盘的朗朗明月,自然会期盼家人团聚。远在他乡的游子,也借此寄托自己对故乡和亲人的思念之情。所以,中秋又称“团圆节”。 中秋节的盛行始于宋朝,至明清时,已与元旦齐名,成为我国的主要节日之一。关于中秋节的起源,大致有三种:起源于古代对月的崇拜、月下歌舞觅偶的习俗,古代秋报拜土地神的遗俗.
 
我国人民在古代就有“秋暮夕月”的习俗。夕月,即祭拜月神。到了周代,每逢中秋夜都要举行迎寒和祭月。设大香案,摆上月饼、西瓜、苹果、红枣、李子、葡萄等祭品,其中月饼和西瓜是绝对不能少的。西瓜还要切成莲花状。在月下,将月亮神像放在月亮的那个方向,红烛高燃,全家人依次拜祭月亮,然后由当家主妇切开团圆月饼。切的人预先算好全家共有多少人,在家的,在外地的,都要算在一起,不能切多也不能切少,大小要一样。
 
Měinián nónglì bā yuè shí wǔ rì, shì chuántǒng de Zhōngqiū jiājié. Zhè shí shì yī nián qiūjì de zhōng qī, suǒyǐ bèi chēng wéi Zhōngqiū. Zài zhōngguó de nónglì lǐ, yī nián fēn wéi sìjì, měi jì yòu fēn wéi mèng, zhòng, jì sān gè bùfèn, yīn'ér Zhōngqiū yě chēng Zhòngqiū. Bā yuè shí wǔ de yuèliàng bǐ qítā jǐ gè yuè de mǎnyuè gèng yuán, gèng míngliàng, suǒyǐ yòu jiàozuò “yuè xī”,“bā yuè jié”. Cǐ yè, rénmen yǎngwàng tiānkōng rú yù rú pán de lǎnglǎng míngyuè, zìrán huìqí pàn jiārén tuánjù. Yuǎn zài tāxiāng de yóuzǐ, yě jiè cǐ jìtuō zìjǐ duì gùxiāng hé qīnrén de sīniàn zhī qíng. Suǒyǐ, zhōngqiū yòu chēng “tuányuán jié”. Zhōngqiū jié de shèngxíng shǐ yú sòngcháo, zhì míng qīng shí, yǐ yǔ yuándàn qímíng, chéngwéi wǒguó de zhǔyào jiérì zhī yī. Guānyú Zhōngqiū jié de qǐyuán, dàzhì yǒusān zhǒng: Qǐyuán yú gǔdài duì yuè de chóngbài, yuè xià gēwǔ mì'ǒu de xísú, gǔdài qiū bào bài tǔdì shén de yí sú.
Wǒguó rénmín zài gǔdài jiù yǒu “qiū mù xī yuè” de xísú. Xī yuè, jí jì bài yuè shén. Dàole Zhōu dài, měi féng Zhōngqiū yè dōu yào jǔxíng yíng hán hé jì yuè. Shè dà xiāng'àn, bǎi shàng yuèbǐng, xīguā, píngguǒ, hóng zǎo, lǐzǐ, pútáo děng jì pǐn, qízhōng yuèbǐng hé xīguā shì juéduì bùnéng shǎo de. Xīguā hái yào qiè chéng liánhuā zhuàng. Zài yuè xià, jiāng yuèliàng shénxiàng fàng zài yuèliàng de nàgè fāngxiàng, hóng zhú gāo rán, quán jiārén yīcì bài jì yuèliàng, ránhòu yóu dāngjiā zhǔfù qiē kāi tuányuán yuèbǐng. Qiè de rén yùxiān suàn hǎo quán jiā gòngyǒu duōshǎo rén, zàijiā de, zài wàidì de, dōu yào suàn zài yīqǐ, bùnéng qiè duō yě bùnéng qiè shǎo, dàxiǎo yào yīyàng.
 
Every year on August 15, is the traditional Mid-Autumn Festival. At this time is the mid-year fall, it is called Mid-Autumn Festival. Lunar New Year in China, the year is divided into four seasons, is divided into quarterly Meng, Chung, season three parts, which Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as Mid-autumn. August 15, the moon full moon for several months more than any other round, brighter, so they called the "month evening", "Ba Yuejie." This night, people look up to the sky disk of jade, such as Lang Lang to the moon, will naturally look forward to family reunion. Far away from home, also took the hands of their own home and loved ones of the thoughts of love. Therefore, the Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as "Tuan Yuanjie." The prevalence of Mid-Autumn Festival began in the Song dynasty, to the Qing, has been with the famous New Year's Day has become one of China's major festivals. Mid-Autumn Festival on the origin, there are basically three types: the origin of the ancient worship of the month, next month seek even dance customs, the ancient land of God worship Autumn relic.

In ancient times our people "on the eve of autumn twilight" customs. On the eve of that worship the Moon. In the Zhou dynasty, to be held during the autumn and winter festival meet monthly. Set up a large incense table, put the moon cake, watermelon, apples, dates, plums, grapes and other offerings, which moon cake and watermelon is definitely not small. Lotus also cut watermelon-shaped. In the next month, the moon statue on the moon in that direction, Candle high fuel, followed by family worship the moon, then headed housewife happy moon cake cut. Pre-cut people who count the total number of good family, at home, in the field, must be considered together, can not cut more and no less cutting, size to be the same.

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