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Shanxi Opera 晋剧全解

作者: 录入:tmx 来源:对外汉语学习网 2017-09-15 09:26:40 

时间:2006年

Date: 2006

类别:传统戏剧

Category: Traditional Opera

地区:山西

Region: Shanxi Province

编号:Ⅳ—18

Project No. IV-18

申报地区或单位:山西省

Name of Applicant (region or institution): Shanxi Province

晋剧.jpg

晋剧是山西省四大梆子剧种之一,因产生于山西中部,故又称中路梆子,外省称之为山西梆子,主要流布于山西中、北部及陕西、内蒙古和河北的部分地区。清代初年,蒲州梆子流入晋中,与祁太秧歌、晋中民间曲调相结合,经晋商和当地文人的参与而形成晋剧。其后几经变化,在晋中、晋北以至内蒙古、河北、陕北的部分地区发展传播开来。清末民初的近百年间是晋剧的发展时期,当时班社众多,人才辈出,尤其是以丁果仙为代表的第一代女演员出现之后,晋剧艺术提升到了一个新的阶段。

Shanxi Opera is one of the four wooden clappers of Shanxi Province. Due to its origination in central Shanxi, it is also called Middle Road Wooden Clappers while outside the province, it is known as Shanxi Wooden Clappers. It is mainly popular in the middle and north of Shanxi and part of Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia and Hebei. Earlier in Qing Dynasty, Puzhou Wooden Clappers spread to the middle of Shanxi Province. Later it merged with Qitai Planting Dance and folk tunes of Central Shanxi and, after involvement of merchants of Shanxi and local men of letters, turned into what is today Shanxi Opera. Then after some further changes, it was widespread in the middle and north of Shanxi and then part of Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Shaanxi. At the turn of Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, when there were many troupes performing and a wealth of talents appeared, in particular the first generation of actresses heralded by Ding Guoxian, the art of Shanxi Opera reached a new stage of development.

晋剧传统剧目丰富,经常上演的有二百多出,包括《渭水河》、《打金枝》、《临潼山》、《乾坤带》、《沙陀国》、《战宛城》、《白水滩》、《金水桥》、《火焰驹》、《梵王宫》、《双锁山》等。在发展过程中,晋剧保留了蒲州梆子慷慨激昂的艺术特色,同时形成婉转细腻的抒情风格。晋剧唱腔丰富,包括乱弹、腔儿、曲子几种,板式多变,表现力强,如乱弹板路就分平板、夹板、二性、流水、介板、倒板、滚白7种。晋剧传统乐队由9人组成,分文、武场两种,文场伴奏乐器为呼胡、二弦、三弦、四弦“四大件”,武场则采用鼓板、铙钹、小锣、马锣、梆子等乐器。晋剧脚色行当主要有须生、正旦、大花脸“三大门”和小生、小旦、小花脸“三小门”,表演粗犷豪放,富于激情,不仅继承了梆子戏表演中的绝技,而且在翎子功、帽翅功等方面又有了进一步的发展。

The traditional programs of Shanxi Opera come in great quantity, with the regular list being over 200, including Weishui River, Beating Gold Twig, Arriving at Tong Mountain, The Belt of Heaven and Earth, Shatuo Kingdom, The Fight of Wancheng, Baishui Beach, Golden Water Bridge, Flame Steed, Palace of Heavenly King, and Double Locks Mountain. During the course of development, Shanxi Opera retains the artistic feature of vehemence and passion of Puzhou Wooden Clappers while assimilating the sentimental style of being sweet and smooth. It is also rich in tones including miscellaneous clappers, tactics of tones, and variation of tunes. And the style of clappers is changeable and hence impressive, e.g. the style of miscellaneous clappers comprising Smooth Clappers, Mixing Clappers, Erxing, Flowing Clappers, Indicating Clappers, Reverse Clappers, and Rolling Recital. The traditional band of Shanxi Opera is made of nine players, falling into Quiet Setting and Dynamic Setting: music instruments of the former are Huhu fiddle, Erxian (two string), Sanxian (three string) and Sixian (four string) wheras those of the latter Drum Clappers, cymbals, mini gong, Horse Gong, and wooden clappers. The roles of Shanxi Opera include three major ones: Xusheng (bearded middle-aged male), Zhengdan (main female) and Dahualian (painted face) and three minor ones: Xiaosheng (young male), Xiaodan (young female) and Xiaohualian (clown). The performance is vehement, gruff and masculine, inheriting the exceptional merit of wooden clappers as well as advancing the long tail and hat wings display skills.

作为山西省的代表性剧种,晋剧在山西地方戏剧、音乐、民俗、历史等的研究中占有重要地位。目前由于商品经济的影响和现代生活方式的冲击,上演剧目迅速减少,城市观众大量流失,农村观众则以老年群体为主,晋剧的前途令人忧虑。

As the typical opera of Shanxi Province, Shanxi Opera makes up an important one in the studies of local opera, music, custom and history. At present, due to impact of market economy and modern lifestyle, the number of programs being staged is dropping sharply, with fewer viewers remaining in cities while merely old folks in rural areas. The future of Shanxi Opera is really a problem to be addressed.

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