当前位置:首页 > 对外汉语 > 趣味汉语 > 故事 > 正文

鸦片战争The Opium War

作者: 录入:cl 来源:中国华文教育网 2017-03-25 09:31:36 

  鸦片生意利润很高,不但英国商人能从中赚很多钱,而且英国政府也能从中得到很大好处,因此,林则徐在广州的禁烟措施,使他们遭受了巨大的损失。公元1840年6月,英国派出48艘共装备有540门大炮的舰队开到广东海面,发动了第一次鸦片战争。

  由于林则徐率广州军民早已严加防备,英军只好沿海岸线北上,攻陷浙江的定海,8月到达天津。清朝皇帝非常害怕,派主张求和的大臣琦善前去谈判,保证只要英军退回广东,清政府就一定惩治林则徐。英军撤退后,朝廷就把林则徐撤职查办,把琦善派到广州去。

  1841年1月,英军强行占领香港岛。清政府被迫宣战,并派大臣奕山到广州指挥。2月,英军猛攻虎门炮台,守将关天培在没有援军的情况下英勇奋战。炮台失守后,关天培和将士们用大刀和敌人拚杀,最后全部壮烈牺牲。英军进攻广州城,胆小如鼠的奕山举白旗投降。攻下广州的英军作恶多端,激起了人民的反抗。广州郊区三元里人民自发地组织起来,与侵略者展开斗争,保卫家乡,给侵略者以沉重的打击。

  英军继续扩大侵华战争,进攻浙江省的定海、镇海、宁波等地。以葛云飞为代表的沿海爱国军民拚死抵抗,但终因武器落后,加上朝廷腐败、指挥不利而连连失败。1842年6月,英军进攻上海吴淞口,年近70的老将陈化成率军迎战,虽身受多处重伤,血染战袍,仍紧握令旗指挥战斗,直到牺牲。吴淞失守后,英军沿长江入侵,8月打到南京。清政府慌忙投降,与英方签订了出卖中华民族权益的《南京条约》,内容有:赔款2,100万银元;割让香港岛,开放广州、上海、厦门、福州、宁波五个城市为通商口岸等等,这是外国侵略者强迫清政府签订的第一个不平等条约。中国从此开始沦为半殖民地半封建国家。

 The Opium War

  Not only did British traders profit from the trade in opium, the British government did too. Lin Zexu's destruction of the opium stocks in Guangzhou brought huge losses to Britain, which, in June 1840, dispatched 48 warships equipped with 540 cannons to the coast of Guangdong, launching the First Opium War against China.

  Under the command of Lin Zexu, the army and the people of Guangzhou had made abundant preparations for the war, and repelled the British fleet, which then turned northward along the coast, captured Dinghai in Zhejiang Province, and reached Tianjin in August. Panic-stricken, Emperor Daoguang sent Minister Qi Shan to sue for peace with the British. The emperor promised to dismiss Lin Zexu as long as the British troops went back to Guangdong. They did so, and Qi Shan was sent to Guangzhou.

  In January 1841, the British occupied Hong Kong Island. To recover the territory, the Qing government sent troops under Minister Yi Shan to Guangzhou.

 

  In February, the British troops bombarded the city's defenses. When the Chinese fort in Humen fell, the defenders, under General Guan Tianpei, engaged the enemy with swords, but were overwhelmed and slaughtered. Yi Shan surrendered Guangzhou, but resistance to the invaders among the local people continued, notably in Sanyuanli in the suburb of Guangzhou. The British then turned their attention to other parts of the coast. They attacked several places in Zhejiang Province, including Dinghai, Zhenhai and Ningbo. Outdated weapons, inexperienced officers and corrupt court officials were the major factors that caused defeat after defeat for the Chinese army. In June 1842, the British troops captured the Wusong Fort in Shanghai. In August, they advanced on Nanjing. The Qing court was forced to sign the humiliating "Treaty of Nanking'. Under the terms of the treaty, China was to pay 21 million silver dollars in reparations; cede Hong Kong Island to Britain; and open the cities of Guangzhou, Shanghai, Xiamen, Fuzhou and Ningbo as trading ports. The "Treaty of Nanking' was the first unequal treaty signed by the Qing court, and its signing marked the start of China's decline to the status of a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country. 

相关阅读

无相关信息

我要评论

共有条评论
用户名: 密码:
验证码: 匿名发表

文明上网理性发言,请遵守新闻评论服务协议