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科举制

作者: 录入:cl 来源:中国华文教育网 2017-03-25 10:27:57 

   科举制也称“开科取士”,就是朝廷开设科目公开考试,然后根据考试成绩来选取人才,分别授予官职的一种制度。科举制产生于隋朝,唐朝继承了这一制度,并进一步完善,成为国家选拔人才的主要方式。

  唐朝科举考试分为常科和制科两种。常科每年举行,考试科目有秀才、明经、进士等。在众多科目中考进士科难度很大,往往百人中才取一两名,因此特别受到读书人的重视。进士科考试合格称为“及第”。及第的人要在曲江池参加庆祝宴会,并在长安慈(ci)恩寺大雁塔下题名,十分荣耀。制科是皇帝临时诏令设置的科目,名目也很多,通常由皇帝亲自主持,但在士人眼里往往被视为非正途出身,不受重视。

  唐代考生有两个来源:一是由学馆选送的学生,称为生徒;二是经州县初考合格后,再进京参加考试,称为乡贡。唐代科举考试一般由礼部主持,考生录取以后,再经吏部复试,根据成绩授予各种官职。

  隋唐时期形成的科举制,使普通的读书人获得参加考试然后被选拔做官的机会。这就使封建王朝能在更大的范围内选拔官员。科举制历经隋、唐、宋、元、明、清,一直为历代王朝所采用。但是到了明清时科举制演变成一种刻板、僵(jiang)化的制度,也束缚(fu)了中国读书人的思想,对历史发展产生了消极的影响。

  Starting in the Sui Dynasty, the imperial government selected its officials from the ranks of the successful candidates in the imperial civil examinations.

  The imperial civil examination in the Tang Dynasty was classified into two types: the regular one and the irregular one. The regular examination was held every year. It had many levels, such as Xiucai, Mingjing and Jinshi. The Jinshi degree was the most difficult to attain. Every year hundreds of men took the Jinshi examination, but only one or two passed.

  Those who passed the Jinshi examination would attend a lavish banquet held by the Qujiang Pond, and their names would be announced under the Greater Goose Pagoda in the Ci'en Temple. The irregular examination was set spontaneously by the emperor himself, who acted as the chief examiner. However, it was of less importance than the regular one.

  There were two kinds of people who took the imperial civil examination. One consisted of students chosen by academies, who were called shengtu; the other kind, called xianggong, consisted of those who had passed the examinations held by prefectures and counties. The imperial civil examination in the Tang Dynasty was usually presided over by the Board of Rites. Those who passed the examination would be re-examined by the Board of Rites, and then receive various kinds of official positions according to their examination results.

  The imperial civil examination system was the method used until the late years of China's last feudal dynasty, the Qing, which fell in 1911, to choose talented men for official positions. However, during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the imperial civil examination system, which stressed knowledge of the Confucian classics exclusively, became a rigid and stultifying institution which kept China from adopting modern scientific methods. 

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