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康乾盛世

作者: 录入:cl 来源:中国华文教育网 2017-03-25 10:41:26 

  清朝康熙(公元1661~1722年在位)、雍正(1722~1735年在位)和乾隆(1735~1796年在位)三位皇帝治理国家时,政治经济等出现的繁荣时期,史称“康干盛世”。

  康熙是中国历史上在位时间最长的皇帝。1661年康熙即位时,还是一个小孩子,那时明朝的旧臣想推翻清朝,恢复明朝的统治,形势十分危急。为了缓和矛盾,稳定政治局面,康熙把儒家学说定为官方思想,任用汉人做官,提倡汉文化。康熙还非常注重农业生产,并采取减轻农民负担等一系列措施,让被战争破坏的经济迅速恢复。他还经常巡视各地,了解民情,关心人民的疾苦。康熙平定了西南吴三桂叛乱、蒙古准噶尔部的分裂活动和西藏叛乱,从郑成功后代手中收回了台湾,两次与沙俄在雅克萨作战,维护了清朝领土的完整,康熙对国家统一作出了很大贡献。康熙在位期间,社会经济发展,人民生活安定。

  雍正在位时间较短,保持了清朝的持续发展。乾隆皇帝是雍正的儿子,1735年即位后,他鼓励农民开垦荒地,组织移民,并行农业生产,多次减免农民的赋税。他调整了雍正时中央与地方地主官僚的紧张关系。惩罚官吏结党营私,改善了官吏队伍。平定了回部贵族叛乱,并对西藏进行了政治和宗教改革,加强了对西藏的管理。消灭了西南少数民族地区的割据政权,这些措施奠定了近代中国的版图。与康熙、雍正时相比,乾隆时的清朝更加强大富有,达到了清朝的最强盛时期。

  The reigns of the Qing emperors Kangxi (1661-1722 AD), Yongzheng (1722-1735 AD) and Qianlong (1735-1796 AD) marked a period of unprecedented prosperity both politically and economically.

  Kangxi enjoyed the longest reign in Chinese history. When he ascended the throne in 1661, he was still a child. He quickly became versed in statecraft, however, and to appease officials of the old regime, he promoted a program of Sinicization of his government. He appointed Han officials, instituted Confucianism as the state ideology and enthusiastically promoted Han culture among the ruling Manchu class. Kangxi also attached importance to the restoration of agricultural production, which had been devastated by years of war and official neglect. He adopted a series of measures to lighten the burden on the peasants, and prosperity rapidly returned to the countryside. During his reign, the last of the armed Ming loyalists were put down, separatist activities in Mongolia and Tibet were quashed, and control of Taiwan was wrested from Zheng Chenggong's descendants. In addition, encroachment from tsarist Russia was halted. Kangxi thus made great contributions to the territorial integrity of the country, as well as to its security and prosperity.

  Emperor Yongzheng proved a worthy successor to Kangxi's policies. Emperor Qianlong succeeded to the throne in 1735. He encouraged peasants to cultivate waste land, and lightened their tax burden. He also strengthened the central government's control over the ethnic-minority areas, particularly in Tibet. 

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