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科学巨匠与巨著

作者: 录入:cl 来源:中国华文教育网 2017-03-25 10:42:14 

  明代经济发展的同时,科学、医学也取得很大的成就,涌现了许多优秀的科学家和科学著作。

  李时珍和《本草纲目》 李时珍(公元1518~1593年)是明代著名的医学家和药物学家,出生于湖广蕲(qi)州(今湖北蕲春)一个世代行医的家庭。他受到家庭的影响,从小就对医学有着浓厚的兴趣,并决心做一个给人们解除病痛的好医生。李时珍24岁就开始正式给人治病,由于他刻苦钻研,医术高超,治好了许多疑难病症。

  可是,李时珍在行医的过程中,发现前人编着的医药书中有许多遗漏,甚至还有许多错误。他决心重编一本比较完善的药物著作。为了实现这一理想,李时珍阅读了大量的医学著作,还注重实地考察和采集草药。经过差不多30年的努力,他终于在60岁的时候写成了《本草纲目》一书。这本书内容十分丰富,收入药物1,800多种,新增药物370多种,医方一万多个,配有插图1,000多幅。书中关于植物的分类方法,也是当时世界最先进的。《本草纲目》是中国药物学研究的总结,已被译成多种文字,被誉为“东方医学巨典”。

  徐光启和《农政全书》 徐光启(公元1562~1633年)上海人,明朝科学家,曾跟随意大利传教士利玛窦(dou)学习西方的天文、历算、火器等知识。他钻研科学文化知识,在介绍西方自然科学和发展中国的农业、天文、数学等方面作出了重大贡献。他的《农政全书》是关于农业科学的著作,用科学的方法总结了中国传统的农业知识和技术,并介绍了欧洲的水利技术,书中有图,有批注,有说明,内容丰富,是一部农业百科全书。

  宋应星和《天工开物》 宋应星(公元1587~约1666年),江西人,明朝末年科学家。他一生写了许多著作,《天工开物》是其中影响最大的一部书。这本书是明朝农业和手工业生产技术的总结,内容十分广泛,几乎包括了当时社会生活的各个方面,反映了当时的社会发展水平,被誉为“中国17世纪的工艺百科全书”。

  徐霞客和《徐霞客游记》 徐霞客(公元1586~1641年),江苏人,中国17世纪杰出的旅行家和地理学家。徐霞客读了很多书,对地理、历史、游记类的书特别感兴趣。他发现,有些地理书籍的记载是错误的,因而决心考察祖国的山河。22岁那年,徐霞客开始了他的野外考察生活,直到他逝世的那一年。在30多年的考察生活中,徐霞客几乎跑遍了全中国。《徐霞客游记》以日记的形式记录了作者旅行考察中的见闻和内心感受。徐霞客以实地考察的第一手资料,记录了中国的山川河流、地形地貌、矿产分布等。《徐霞客游记》是研究中国地貌、水文、动植物分布等的重要参考资料。

  At the same time as the economy was developing rapidly during the Ming Dynasty, great strides were also made in science and medicine.

  Li Shizhen (1518-1593 AD) came from a long line of doctors in present-day Hubei Province, and devoted himself to the art of healing. Noticing that the classical works on medicine contained many mistakes and obscurities, he determined to write a definitive materia medica. He spent 30 years on his life's work, which he completed at the age of 60. His book, titled Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), contains details of over 1,800 kinds of herbs and other medicinal materials, 10,000 prescriptions and over 1,000 illustrations. It was the most scientific description of traditional Chinese medicine of its time, and is still used today, having been translated into several major languages.

  Xu Guangqi (1562-1633 AD), born in Shanghai, studied astronomy, mathematics and the art of making firearms under Matteo Ricci, an Italian missionary. He made great contributions to the introduction of Western natural science to China and to developing science in China, including scientific agriculture, as embodied in his Encyclopedia of Agriculture.

  Song Yingxing (1587-c.1666 AD), born in Jiangxi, contributed much to the development of agriculture and handicrafts. Among the many books he wrote, his Exploitation of the Works of Nature was the most influential. Its contents cover almost every aspect of social and economic life in 17th century China.

  Xu Xiake (1586-1641 AD), born in Jiangsu, was an eminent traveler and geographer of the 17th century. Puzzled by conflicting references in books of geography, history and travels, he decided to investigate for himself. From the age of 22, Xu Xiake spent 30 years traveling all over China. He recorded his observations in diary form in his Xu Xiake's Travels. This book is still of great importance for the study of China's landforms, hydrology, distribution of animals and plants, mineral resources, etc.

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