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林则徐与虎门销烟

作者: 录入:cl 来源:中国华文教育网 2017-03-25 10:44:09 

                                                                       





 
 

  公元1839年6月3日,在广东虎门的海边,许多箱子堆得像小山一样高,周围有成千上万的群众,他们都在激动而兴奋地等待?……这是怎么一回事呢?

  原来,箱内装的都是大烟。大烟正式的名字叫鸦片,是一种毒品,人吸了就会上瘾(Yǐn)。常吸大烟的人身体虚弱,精神萎靡(wěmǐ),被叫做“大烟鬼”。从19世纪初开始,英国等西方国家大量向中国偷运走私鸦片,在不到40年里,就使中国吸鸦片的人数达到两百多万。鸦片给英国商人带来巨额的利润,却给中国社会带来了巨大的危害:它不但损害人民的健康,而且使中国的白银大量外流,社会经济受到很大影响。另外,由于军队中的“大烟鬼”增多,军队的士气和战斗力也大大下降。

  面对这种严重的形势,以湖广总督林则徐为代表的大臣们多次向道光皇帝上书,主张严厉禁止鸦片。1839年,皇帝终于下决心派林则徐去广州禁烟。

  林则徐(公元1785~1850年)在1838年任湖广总督时,禁止鸦片,效果显著。林则徐到广州后,与外国毒贩展开了坚决的斗争。他先进行调查,摸清情况,然后命令毒贩们交出全部鸦片,并且保证永远不再走私。外国毒贩们不相信林则徐真能禁绝鸦片。他们不交鸦片,有的还准备逃跑。林则徐派兵抓回了逃犯,包围了英国商馆,撤出了商馆里的中国雇工,断绝了商馆的饮食供应,给外国毒贩及其支持者的生活造成极大的不便,并且说:“若鸦片一日未绝,本大臣一日不回!誓与此事相始终!”毒贩们这下儿可害怕了,知道没有希望了,只好交出鸦片,一共有2万多箱,110多万公斤!

  林则徐命令将这2万多箱大烟全部销毁,于是就发生了开篇的那一幕。由于大烟数量太多,销烟工作整整进行了23天。虎门销烟是一件震撼(zhènhàn)世界的壮举,林则徐也因此成为中国近代史上的民族英雄。

  From the early 19th century, Britain and other Western countries began to smuggle opium into China. In no more than 40 years, the number of China's opium addicts had reached over two million. Opium brought huge profits to British merchants, but posed a great danger to China. It not only harmed people's health, but also drained the country of silver. What was more, the morale and strength of the army were also harmed with the increase of opium addiction in the ranks.

  Emperor Daoguang was repeatedly urged by his ministers to stop the scourge of opium spreading, and in 1839 he dispatched Lin Zexu to Guangzhou to implement the banning of opium smoking and the opium trade.

  Lin (1785-1850 AD) had been successful in banning opium smoking and the opium trade when he was viceroy of Hubei and Hunan. After arriving in Guangzhou, he forced the foreign merchants to hand over their stocks of opium, which amounted to 1,100,000 kg in over 20,000 boxes.

  Lin Zexu had the confiscated opium piled up on the seashore at Humen, and destroyed. Starting June 3, 1839, it took 23 days to complete the destruction of the drug.

  For his bold action, Lin Zexu became a national hero in modern Chinese history. 

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