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Ten Versions of the Story About Origin of Dragon Boat Festival 十说端午节由来

作者: 录入:hcl 来源:对外汉语学习网 2017-03-22 14:32:03 

Statue of Jie Zitui and His Mother seating on Mianshan Mountain in
Jiexiu
介子推是清明节由来传说的主角,可也有人认为端午节的由来与他有关。关于端午节的由来,历代学者有着不同的说法,各地也都有着很多传说。我们只能把这些说法罗列出来,供诸君一览。至于哪一种说法更接近真相,还有赖于学者们进一步考证。
Jie Zitui is generally accepted as the leading role in the legend derived from Qingming Festival, but now he is considered as a key figure related to the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival. On the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival, the scholars of successive dynasties have always held different opinions, and there are many different sayings in different places. What we can do is only list out these different sayings for you to just have a look. Determining which legend approaches the truth more depends on further research of the texts of relevant scholars.
一说认为端午节是龙的节日。闻一多先生《端午考》考证,端午节是古代吴越民间举行图腾祭的节日,认为端午节实际上是一个龙的节日。
Version 1: The Dragon Boat Festival is a festival that originated from the totem worship of dragon. Mr. Wen Yiduo has verified in his work “Climax Test” that the Dragon Boat Festival is a festival that was held by the ancient Wu and Yue people for totem sacrifice. Therefore, he thought that the Dragon Boat Festival actually is the festival of the dragon.
二说认为端午节是纪念楚国爱国诗人屈原逝世。据《续齐谐记》记述:屈原在五月初五投汨罗江而死,楚人哀之,每逢此日,以竹筒盛米,投江祭之。
Version 2: The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated in memory of Qu Yuan, a patriotic poet of Chu Kingdom. According to the record in “Xu Qi Xie Ji”, Qu Yuan committed suicide by throwing himself into the Miluo River on 5th of the 5th month of the Chinese lunar calendar, and the people of Chu Kingdom in great grief held a memorial ceremony for him by throwing the bamboo tubes filled with rice into the river on each 5th of the 5th month of the lunar calendar.
三说是据《礼记》载,端午源于周代的蓄兰沐浴。
Version 3: The Dragon Boat Festival, according to “The Book of Rites”, originated from the convention in Zhou Dynasty of bathing in the water added with Cymbidium sinense.
四说认为据东汉时期蔡邕《琴操》中载,端午节系为纪念先贤介子推。
Version 4: The Dragon Boat Festival, according to “Qin Cao” written by Cai Yong in the Eastern Han Dynasty, is a festival to commemorate a great man, Jie Zitui.
五说认为宋代高承《事物纪源》刊文,端午源于春秋时期越王勾践于是日操练水军。
Version 5: The Dragon Boat Festival, according to “Shi Wu Ji Yuan” complied by Gao Cheng in Song Dynasty, is the day during the Spring and Autumn Period on which the emperor of Yue Kingdom Gou Jian was training his navy.
六说认为梁宗懔《荆州岁时记》转述,端午是为迎“涛神”伍子胥。《后汉书》中也写道:浙江虞巫上祝曹盱,五月初五在曹娥江上婆娑起舞,迎接伍子胥。后来江浙一带百姓每逢端午逆流而上,举行各种仪式,以悼念伍子胥。
Version 6: The Dragon Boat Festival, according to “Jing Zhou Sui Shi Ji” by Zong Lin in Liang Dynasty, is a festival for greeting the “God of Waves” Wu Zixu. It was also recorded in the “Book of the Later Han” that Cao Xu was dancing above the Cao’e River (also called Shunjiang River before) for the worship of “God of Waves” Wu Zixu on 5th of the fifth month of lunar calendar. Afterwards, the people in Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas went upstream along the river by boats on every Dragon Boat Festival, and held various ceremonies for mourning Wu Zixu.
七说认为在《道书》中载有五月初五是为祭祀先祖日。
Version 7: 5th day of the fifth month of the lunar calendar, according to “Taoist Book”, is the day for ancestor worship.
八说是据《会稽典录》一书记载,端午是为纪念寻父投江而死的曹娥。
Version 8: The Dragon Boat Festival, according to “Records of Kuaiji”, is in memory of Cao E, who committed suicide because she failed to find her father’s body.
九说认为端午起源于夏商、周时期的夏至节。其时仲夏之日,万物方盛,夏至日,阴气荫生,恐物不懋,故在五月初五以五色印为门户饰,以惩恶气。
Version 9: The Dragon Boat Festival originated from the custom of summer solstice in the ancient Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties. The 5th day of the fifth month of the lunar calendar is during the midsummer when everything is prospering, but on the summer solstice, the Yin energy arises from the dark places, interfering with the development of everything. Therefore, doors and windows are decorated with five-colored silk fabrics, in order to fight against misfortune.
十说是民间有一传说认为,端午源于湖北沔阳沙湖曾有四位豪杰专门劫富济贫,后遭当地官兵突袭围困而于五月初五投江而亡。当地民众万分悲哀,将这一天定为端午节,以示悼念。
Version 10: There is a folklore that the Dragon Boat Festival originates from the story of four heroes in Shahu Town, Mianyang, Hubei, who specialized in stealing from the rich and giving to the poor, and who later ended their lives on 5th day of the 5th month of the lunar calendar by throwing themselves into the river because of being struck and trapped by local soldiers. The local people who were in debt were deeply saddened, so they determined to celebrate the Dragon Boat Festival on that day for commemorating the heroes.
在上述这些传说中,端午纪念屈原一说因屈原的爱国主义精神、刚正不阿的人格力量及其诗作的深远影响,秦汉以后由楚地逐渐传遍神州,为人们所认同并相沿迄今。

Among these legends, the version about commemorating Qu Yuan was gradually spread across China from Chu Kingdom after Qing and Han Dynasties and became generally accepted by Chinese people, and it was passed down from generation to generation because of Qu Yuan’s spirit of patriotism, marked by integrity and strength of character, as well as the profound influence of his poems. 

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