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Lantern Show 灯会

作者: 录入:hcl 来源:对外汉语学习网 2017-03-22 14:33:47 

正月十五元宵节,民间有观赏花灯的习俗。灯会始于汉,兴于唐,盛于宋。据周密的《武林旧事》中载,南宋都城临安,最初只是一些大街旁的茶馆,在元宵节时悬挂花灯售卖,如此数年,渐成气候,遂形成了灯市。灯市一般在元宵节前数天开始。为了使灯市热闹起来,京尹每年都派人到灯市上巡视,根据各家商铺所悬挂的花灯数量,配给一定的蜡烛、灯油及费用。到了正月十五,京尹会亲自前往灯市,其随行者会携带一只装满了纸币的口袋,给灯市上的游动小贩发红包,以感谢他们对灯市繁荣所做的贡献,谓之“买市”。
People always enjoy festive lantern during the Lantern Festival on the fifteenth day of the first month of the lunar year. Lantern show can be traced back to the Han Dynasty, which rose in the Tang Dynasty and peaked in the Song Dynasty. “Lin’an Reminiscence” of Zhoumi recorded that only some tea houses near the street in Lin’an, capital city of Southern Song Dynasty, hanged festive lanterns for sale during the Lantern Festival. Years later, the phenomenon became popular and the lantern market took shape which started several days in the leading up to the Lantern Festival. In order to enliven the market, local administer dispatched staffers to inspect the market every year and allocated candles, lamp oil and expenditures according to the number of lanterns each shop hanged. On the fifteenth day of the first month, local administer would come to the market in person and his followers would carry a notes pocket and send red packet with money in it to vendors to thank their contribution to growing the lantern market. This is the so-called “buying market”.
为了保证赏灯百姓的安全,地方官员在安保方面也是下足了工夫。每年的灯会期间,坊间的繁华热闹地带,都点有巨烛或松柴作为路灯,有兵卒站在一旁维持秩序。路灯旁边还会押着几个罪犯示众,身上写明此人犯罪的缘由。如偷抢妇女头上的钗环首饰,或者举止不端,趁着人多,在妇女身边挨挨搪搪地耍流氓。其实这些人之前就已犯罪被关押于狱中,将之拿出来顶缸示众,目的是警戒作奸犯科者,尽可能地将罪案扼杀在萌芽状态。
Local officials worked hard to ensure the safety of visitors. Huge candles or pipe logs were used as street lamps while soldiers stood aside to maintain order in hustling area of the lantern show. Some criminals were detained near the street lamps with reason of crime stated on the clearly, such as stealing and grabbing jewelries of women on their heads, or acting indecently like a hooligan. As things stand, they were put in prison before the Festival, which was designed to alert criminals and stifle them in the cradle.
南宋的皇帝对灯会也非常支持。每年元宵节的二鼓时分,皇帝就乘着小车,带领宫人到宣德门上观赏鳌山。鳌山是在灯市的中央位置扎盖起的一座如鳌形的高台,上面悬挂有数百盏花灯。皇帝赏灯的时候,京尹会让一批经过挑选,衣着干净、食品卫生的小商贩,或者唱歌动听、舞姿曼妙的艺人,在宣德门外等候。皇帝会宣召这些人到楼上表演,妃嫔内人也纷纷购买商贩制作的零食。由于不了解价格,她们的所费往往要比常人高出数倍,甚至有商贩因此而一夜暴富。
Emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty fully supported lantern show. Early in the morning of the Lantern Festival, the Emperor took a trolley and led attendants to Xuande Gate to view Osan. It’s an elevation stand in the shape of turtle in the central area of lantern market with hundreds of festive lanterns hanged. Local administer would selec some vendors with clean dress and healthy food, or artisans with melodious songs and graceful dance to wait the Emperor at Xuande Gate. The Emperor would call them to perform on the stage and concubines would purchase snacks offered by vendors. Knowing nothing about the real price, they always spent several times higher than ordinary price and some vendors got rich suddenly because of this.
除此之外,临安的一些大户人家,也在家中的花园水榭中布置各式花灯,并且开门任人游览,还备以酒菜款待,以显示自己的家势昌盛。而那些居于幽坊静巷的小户人家,也在门前挂设数盏五色琉璃泡灯应节,远远看去,恍若仙境。
Besides, some rich and influential families in Lin’an also decorated some festive lanterns in their home gardens and pavilions which were opened to the public for sightseeing. They also treated visitors with food and drink to demonstrate their wealth. And those poor families living on quite lanes and alleys also hanged some five-color glaze lights to welcome the Festival, seeming like a fairyland from afar.
相比具有浓重政府色彩的宋代灯会,明朝的灯会,则已演变成了纯粹的市场行为。每年的正月初十日到十六日,各地的客商和巧匠就会云集京城,将自己制作的花灯拿到东安门外迤北大街售卖。在这短短的数天里,不仅是花灯制作工艺的比拼,也是经商实力的比拼。京城靠近灯市的商铺和住房,每年到了灯市开市的时候,租价就会翻番,要比平时贵上数倍,如果不是生意做得特别大的商人,轻易不敢问津。另外,灯的式样和工艺也是新颖繁多,有镶嵌珍玩珠宝的灯,也有从邻国或海外贩回来的灯,引来的观赏者络绎不绝。价格高的灯,一盏就要卖上千两银子。
Compared with the lantern show with rich government features in the Song Dynasty, lantern show in the Ming Dynasty evolved into a pure market behavior. From the tenth to the sixteenth day of the first month every year, merchants and artisans from all over the country gathered together at the capital city to sell their products on streets in the north of Dong’an Gate. The short week witnessed the comparison and competition of production techniques and business strength. The shops and lodgings near the lantern market offered several times higher rent during the Lantern Festival. only big merchants dared to make inquiries. On top of that, the patterns and techniques of lanterns got novel and diversified, including lanterns inlaid with rare curios and jewelries and those imported from neighboring countries, attracting endless visitors. Some even were sold at over 1,000 liang of silver.
明人蒋一葵在《尧山堂外纪》载有一事:明朝年间的元夕灯节,京城有工匠用糯汁烧成琉璃瓶,然后制成花灯,可以贮水养鱼,旁边映衬着烛光,透明可爱。黄岩人王古直花费重金买了一盏在家,爱不释手,终日耍玩。有天一不小心,他将琉璃瓶碰到地上,摔了个粉碎,悲叹道:“吾平生家计在此,今荡尽矣!”明代花灯的精巧程度、价值几何,此说也可作为旁证。

As is put in the “Record Outside of Yaoshan Hall” of Jiang Yikui of the Ming Dynasty, during the Lantern Festival in the Ming Dynasty, some craftsman made colored glaze bottle with glutinous extract to produce festival lantern, which can be used in fish culture and with candle light set off, it appeared transparent and lovely. Wang Guzhi of Huang Yan bought one with a large sum of money and fondled it admiringly. Someday, he carelessly bumped the bottle onto the floor and the bottle was broken to pieces. He signed that “my entire family livelihood is destroyed!” This story can be used as a side witness to show the exquisiteness and high value of festive lantern of the Ming Dynasty. 

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